1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement

But fundamental frictions continue to challenge the relationship. Yara, who resigned as governor in 1976 after serving two terms, hinted at the time: “We were against the peace treaty because it separated Okinawa from Japan. We were against the American bases, which were maintained because of the peace treaty in Okinawa. That is why we will continue to oppose the principles after the repatriation agreement. The United States had informed Japan that a return would be possible if nuclear weapons were allowed in Okinawa in an emergency. The issue was raised by the United States as an ultimatum. Japan agreed, but the ultimatum led to complications; What was considered an emergency that justified nuclear weapons? [10] Although Japan did not believe that such an emergency would ever occur, its goal of complete denuclearization had failed. The United States was also seeking fair competition with Japanese wool distillers. Because business and government are closely linked, America has pushed for regulations for wool manufacturers. Since the issue of the reversal was trade-related, top-secret discussions took place at the White House, which ended with an agreement to meet with other countries on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in which Japan promised to support U.S. research for fair trade. [7] The decision itself was made in November 1969 at a summit between Prime Minister Eisaku Sato and US President Richard M. Nixon.

Representatives of the two countries signed the agreement on June 17, 1971. This marks the 50th anniversary of the signing. Security issues were also discussed and arrangements for the transfer of responsibilities for the defense of the Nansei Islands were finalized in a separate agreement known as the Kubo-Curtis Agreement (approved on June 29, 1971) at the 13th meeting of the U.S.-Japan Security Advisory Committee. Under its conditions, Japan was to assume the main defensive role until July 1, 1973. The visit, which also included the agreement on the return of the Ryukyus, was a great political success for Sato, who probably gave me and others a set of pearl cufflinks that I still use out of gratitude. The procedure we adopted to draft the communiqué proved to be an extraordinarily effective lever for the Japanese bureaucracy to persuade it, which was cumbersome at best, to act relatively quickly, in order to help us solve the Ryukyu problem, several trade issues and some minor problems. We found it to be an extremely effective way to organize a visit by the Prime Minister. One that was relatively infallible.

In other words, prefigured. At the State Department, we – and certainly the embassy in Tokyo – thought it was crucial to move quickly to the Ryukyus. In the Ryukyus and Japan, things began to turn sour. We had to move forward in time, since we had a deadline of 1970 [for the renewal of the 1960 security treaty]. So we started discussions about the return of the Ryukyus with the Japanese to Tokyo and Washington. We often think of the anniversary of Okinawa`s return in the context of May 15. This is true because it was the date the United States returned administrative rights to Japan via Okinawa in 1972. China has criticized the sovereignty reversal because of its claims to the region, based on China`s ancient maritime tribes, Voyage with a Tail Wind. Their references were not found to be sufficiently credible to confirm their claim.

Historical circumstances remain the subject of debate. [11] The agreement was negotiated primarily, often on a daily basis, by members of the U.S.-Japan Advisory Committee in Tokyo, headed by Deputy Chief of Mission Richard Sneider for the United States. Side and Bunroku Yoshino, Japanese Director General of the State Department`s Bureau of U.S. Affairs. The participation and approval of the different agencies, departments and ministries was required depending on the topics discussed, which required more time for the more difficult problems. In addition, Okinawa is a large island, large enough to accommodate Japanese farmers and city dwellers, as well as many American facilities. We had a problem with the administration there. It wasn`t just like a big U.S. military base. There was a large population of Okinawa to manage. Increasingly, there was a good mood, especially among Okinawans, about their future status as a reversion. The Okinawa Overthrow Agreement (Japanese: 沖縄返還協定, Hepburn: Okinawahenkan kyōtei) was an agreement between Japan and the United States in which the United States renounced in favor of Japan all rights and interests under Article III of the Treaty of San Francisco that it had obtained as a result of the Pacific War, thereby returning Okinawa Prefecture to Japanese sovereignty.

The document was signed simultaneously by William P. on June 17, 1971 in Washington, D.C. and Tokyo. Rogers on behalf of President Richard Nixon and Kiichi Aichi on behalf of Prime Minister Eisaku Satō. [1] The document was not ratified by the National Parliament of Japan until November 24, 1971. [1] It is confirmed that treaties, conventions and other agreements concluded between the United States of America and Japan, including but not limited to treaties, conventions and other agreements concluded on September 19. In January 1960, the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States of America and Japan was signed in Washington, D.C., and the Related Agreements and the Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation between the United States of America and Japan, signed in Tokyo on April 2, 1953. shall apply to the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands from the date of entry into force of this Agreement. The agreements have sparked controversy in Okinawa and mainland Japan for a variety of reasons. Despite the desire of many islanders for some form of independence, the Japanese government decided to negotiate the return of the prefecture to its control.

[1] The document was not ratified by the National Parliament of Japan until November 24, 1971. [1] Even before the talks, the Ryukyu independence movement aimed to gain Okinawa`s independence from America and Japan. In Tokyo, a group of radical students unhappy with the US military presence in Okinawa revolted with Molotov cocktails and steel pipes, killing a police officer. [12] The Koza Uprising is another example of the social unrest that took place in Japan during this period. [13] U.S. forces have reported that the overthrow of sovereignty has created a new and challenging environment for the armed forces. [14] We [got] what we wanted, in the form of bases and the General Authority to manage them. That was the most important part of the agreement. However, the completion of okinawa`s return was based on an earlier repatriation agreement, as well as an earlier decision by the president to return Okinawa to Japan. Thus, the questions that arose in 1969 regarding the return of the Ryukyus also had to take into account the fact that the security treaty with Japan might not be renewed by the Japanese if the overthrow negotiations failed. .